The Notebook of Viola Desmond: Transcription

Page 1


  1. What is shampooing?
    Shampooing is the act of scrubbing, rubbing and washing the hair with soap or its equivalent
  2. What effect has it upon the hair?
    For cleansing only
  3. How many fluids can you give?
    Three – soap, electric and dry shampoo
  4. Why is egg shampoo recommended for bleached or porous hair?
    Because it does not penetrate the hair shaft as soap does.
  5. What benefits are derived from an oil shampoo?
    Corrects dry brittle falling hair, by strengthening the gland cells

Page 2

  1. How do you give one?
    First open the pores with about three hot towels, then apply oil, massage well in scalp, three more hot towels then shampoo
  2. Name the different rinses?
    Hena, Hena pack, lemon, bright rinse, camomile rinse, citric and vinegar
  3. Which is the only rinse used cold?
    The blue rinse for white hair
  4. Why are acid rinses rinsed out of the hair?
    Because acid causes the hair to break and split
  5. How often should shampoos be given?
    On regular intervals, depending upon the condition of the hair.  But usually every two weeks

Page 3


  1. Define sanitation and hygiene
    Sanitation is the act of making healthy and hygiene is the sign of health
  2. What is meant by infection?
    An invasion of the body through broken or unhealthy tissue where conditions are favourable for the growth of germs
  3. How do we make our instruments, linen, hands and shop free from germs
    We sterilize instruments and linens and disinfect one hand and shop, and use antiseptics, ____, lotions, etc
  4. How is moist heat produced?
    By boiling and steaming

Page 4

  1. How is dry heat produced?
    By baking and burning
  2. How are chemical solutions produced?
    Various strengths of solutions placed in jars and instruments immersed
  3. What is bacteria?
    It is the lowest form of vegetable and animal life
  4. What are the three requirements for its growth?
    The three D’s, darkness, dampness and dirt
  5. What are the means of their entrance into the body?
    Inhalation, swallowing and penetration
  6. Is the complete elimination of bacteria possible?

Page 5


Page 6

  1. Give and name some antiseptics
    Peroxide, full strength, Iodine 75% solution, Lysol 1 percent and yellow laundry soap
  2. Name some disinfectants
    Alcohol full strength, formalin 10%, formaldehyde 10%, submerge for 20 minutes
  3. Name some sterilizing solutions
    4% formaldehyde, 10% carbolic acid, baking, burning.
  4. Define asceptic and sceptic
    A septic without germs and septic having germs
  5. What is meant by deodorant?
    And agent that removed odor.

Page 7

Marcel Waving

  1. Who first gave us the Marcel wave? And when did it come to this country?
    Monsieur Marcel in 1898
  2. What is a marcel?
    A design in the hair done with hot irons all resembling a series of s’s
  3. Give the three movements

(1) Insert iron in hair, grooves underneath, prong and clip. Comb hair to right and left point on handle on curling to where dip is to be placed
(2) Place iron under crease, which you have just made and roll iron toward you, half way only at same time, guide and swing hair with comb to opposite direction to which you previously did. Turn iron back from you halfway, placing little finger

Page 8

between handles. Open iron slightly and slide the necessary distance to obtain width of wave you desire?

  1. What are the different sizes of irons?
    They range from B to D, and C is most preferable.
  2. What is meant by the term acier?
    Meerly (sic) a French word for steel.
  3. How are irons tempered?
    By heating irons red hot, and plunging into oil or cold water. It then retains the heat longer and temperature of iron is easily detected when tested.
  4. How should beginners test their iron?
    On paper then hold to the face

Page 9

  1. In what hand is iron held and what part of the iron is on top.
    Iron is held in right hand prong on top and grooves underneath.
  2. Should brush or comb be twisted in marcelling?
    No – Iron should only be rolled by manipulating fingers.
  3. What is the object of the comb?
    To hold the hair securely on the iron, and to partly shape the wave by swinging the hair right to left
  4. In waving gray and white hair is it necessary to be careful of too hot irons
    It is – as an iron too hot will scorch or yellow white hair

Page 10

  1. What do you mean by waving in layers.
    Pick up a curl or strand of hair, at the start of your waving after is has been waved, separate this top strand from remaining hair, that is underneath allowing a thin layer of just waved strand to remain in second layer as a guide to your second wave.

Page 11

Anatomy of the Hand

  1. What is manicuring?
    The art of treating and shaping the nails.
  2. Name the bones of the arm
    The humerus, upper part of lower elbow, the ulna, the large bone of the fore-arm (sic), and the radius, the smaller bone of forarm (sic)
  3. How many bones in the wrist and what do we call them
    Eight bones we call carpus
  4. What are the medi carpus (sic) and how many in each hand
    Bones - there are four in each hand
  5. What are the filanges (sic) and how many in each hand?
    These are the bones and there are

Page 12

   five in each hand. There are 3 on each finger and 4 with thumb.

  1. Name the large muscle at the back of the hand.
    The profundus ligament
  2. Diseases of the epidermis. (surface skin),
    Eponychium is a film of epidermis at the base of the nail.
    Hyponychium is an extension of the epidermis extended to the free edge of the nail.
    Hang nails splitting of the epidermis at the edge of the nail caused by dryness.
  3. What is the nail wall?
    On either side of the nail bed a fold of skin.
  4. What is the nail groove?
    A furrow between the nail wall and nail bed.

Page 13

  1. What is the free edge?
    That part of nail extending along the nail bed.
  2. What is the Matrix?
    The bed from which the nail grows.
  3. How do we give relief to an infected nail?
    Clean with peroxide, open pus sack, permit to drain then apply full strength peroxide again and apply iodine over entire finger, hot _______ or benzoic acid may also be applied, then refer to a good doctor.
  4. Of what is a nail composed?
    Fully percent carbon 6.82 percent, hydrogen 11.90% oxygen, nitrogen 22.39%, only gas 2.80% sulphur. The boundary surface is keratin.

Page 14 (not marked)

No 1      Remove old polish, wash hands in soapy water for 3 minutes

  1. File
  2. Oil
  3. Pumice
  4. cuticle knife
  5. wash
  6. cut with clippers
  7. scrub with brush
  8. peroxide
  9. nail white
  10. emery
  11. polish

Page 15 (marked 14)

Manicuring (Practical)

  1. Treat customers at tables one which must have been two bowls one with soap and hot water, the other tepid water—place both at right of customer.
  2. Examine nails and consult as to shape.
  3. File, by picking up file in right hand then to the customers right hand with your left hand, hold thumb firmly between forefingers and thumb and begin to file by placing file at right angle with nail at left corner of thumb end of file to you. Be sure to file in between nail and bed there give long smooth stroke toward you. file is almost straight. Now file both ways always to the center of the nail. Avoid exposing the bed. Only a few strokes is necessary here. Then continue filing in the same manner further along the nail towards

Page 16 (marked 15)

center of free edge, repeat ‘till nail is desired length. Do not use a short nervous stroke. If pointed is desired, do not file across top of free edge of nail. Allow point if oval both sides of nail are filed then point at end of nail is filed down to desired oval.

  1. continue in like manner till fingers on right are desired shape. Then place hand in basin of warm soapy water.
  1. Pick up left hand and proceed to file as right hand at the beginning of thumb. After filing allow to rest and remove right hand from basin, but do not soak at the time.
  1. Wipe R.H. dry with towel, pick up cuticle stick holding as a pencil, dip flat end in cuticle oil and take thumb of customers R.H. firmly between your thumb and forefinger and apply cuticle oil round (sic) base

Page 17 (marked 16)

 of nail, continue with each nail

  1. Now work out cuticle begin at thumb, dipping stick in soapy water, and if bad in powdered pumice. Apply to left corner, placing stick between free edge of nail and bed and loosen hang nails at corner by working down at side of nail to base. Don’t distress customer. Use rotating movement working right across to base of nail. Permit little fingers of right hand in which you are holding stick to rest on your left hand as gives you better control of point. Proceed around nail using water and oil till (sic) cuticle has all been loosened
  2. Use pumice under free edge to remove stains, remove pumice by dipping middle finger into soapy water and applying it to the nail. Then place over right hand and wipe nail free from moisture at the same time pushing cuticle back towards base with towel

Page 18 (marked 17)

  1. While at each finger use cuticle knife under free edge of nail in order to remove all foreign matters. Care must be taken not to scratch nail from underside as to insert knife too far under nail as it is painful
  2. Now bleach nails with peroxide apply surface of free edge, apply forcibly and while still moist use nail white incl stick remove all with towel over thumb
  3. Now trim if necessary getting of all ragged edges, when you get to the free fingers of right hand. Place left hand in towel to soak.
  4. After all nails on right hand have been treated, soak and rinse and dry then apply polish. Do not cover the free edge use cotton to wipe excess from edge. Use emery board.
    Now finish other hand in same manner.  If use powder, polish, scrub after the polish with buffer.

Page 19 (not marked)

  1. Remove old polish
  2. Soak hand in soapy water for 3 minutes
  3. Remove hand – push back cuticles
  4. Scrub fingers with brush and soapy water
  5. Soak 2nd hand in soapy water
  6. Put liquid and stick whitener under nails of 1st hand, cut cuticle, file, apply polish
  7. Remove second hand from water and repeat 3-4-5-6

Page 20 (marked 18)

Scalp Treatment

  1. What do you call the part of hair that expands beyond the scalp?
    It’s called the hair shaft
  2. What happens when the erecterpeli (arrector pili muscle) contracts?
    The contraction elevates the hair follicle and it (sic) root.
  3. Why is hair growth retarded by a thin tight scalp?
    Poor circulation
  4. Is the growth of hair continuous?
  5. What are the cause of dermatitis?
    Food sometimes hair dye, p wave burns.
  6. Name and describe a division of the hair shaft

Page 21 (marked 19)

  1. The cuticle (1st layer) of the hair shaft, and it is composed of tiny overlapping scales
  2. What benefits are derived from an oil shampoo?
    Good for dry brittle and falling hair
  3. What secretion keeps the hair glossy?
    A substance in the sebaceous glands called sebum
  4. Explain alopecia (areata)
    Baldness and spots
  1. How does the health affect the hair?
    Because the hair depends on good healthy blood for its nourishment.
  2. What does sun drying do to the hair ?

Page 22 (marked as 20)

  1. It is good for the hair if not overdone , Brings out natural oil and makes hair soft and glossy
  2. What does an overamount (sic) of oil do to the scalp
    Causes the hair to become too oily, a deficiency causes dryness
  3. What is the most dangerous form of dandruff
    Fine powdered form
  4. Name different forms of dandruff
    Oleosa, oily, Sicea, dry
  5. Name Alopecia
    Areata, Premature, Seborrhea, Congenital, Senilis

Page 23 (not marked)

Hair Bleach and Softener

4 Tbsp Peroxide—
1 Tbsp Ammonia—

Page 24 (marked 21)

Hair Dye

  1. Why should henna be rubbed well into the hair
    To get an even shade
  2. What is the first step after determining the condition of the scalp
    To determine the shade to be used
  3. What is the best judgement to use when selecting the shade of hair dye
    Use a shade lighter than the original hair
  4. What kind of hair absorbs the dye more readily?
    Porous or bleached hair
  5. What do you use to remove a hair restorer?
    Use same method as to remove hair dye, apply a 3% solution of sodium sulphate with tooth brush

Page 25 (marked 22)

  after 20 or 30 min rinse

  1. What are the best known dyes on the market?
    Egyptian henna and compound henna
  2. What do you use to remove hair dye?
    Olive oil and kerosene mixed in equal parts, applied at night. The head is wrapped in a towel, next morning shampoo.
  3. What disease is sometimes caused by hair dye
    Dermatesis (inflammation of the dermus) second layer of skin
  4. What is Egyptian henna and what shade does it produce
    Egyptian is a powder of leaves and bark and it produces a reddish tint.

Page 26 (marked 23)

  1. What determines the shade in using this henna?
    The original shade and the color desired
  2. How do you mix Egyptian henna
    Four tbsp Egyptian henna powder, two tbsp. peroxide, 2 tbsp liquid blueing enough of water to make a creamy paste
  1. What is meant by metallic (sic) dye?
    Dyes that have a mineral base. Compound henna is one.
  2. What does a neutralizer do to the hair
    It softens the hair and allows the dye to penetrate
  3. Do you use compound henna just as you find it?

Page 27 (marked 24)

  1. How do you prepare a customer for a hair dye?
    Prepare the same as for shampoo, use a rubber cloth to protect chair cloth
  2. What is the difference between a hair dye and a hair restorer?
    A hair dye penetrates the hair shaft and a restorer puts on a metallic coat
  3. What do you mean by texture of the hair
    Fine, coarse, or medium
  4. Give the three layers of the hair
    Cuticle or ______ layer, cortex and medula (sic)
  5. Does hair tonic affect the growth of hair
    Good circulation only causes hair to grow

Page 28 (marked 25)

  1. Is hair affected by disease?
    Yes through circulation
  2. Give technical name for baldness
  3. What are the glands that secrete vit[amins] in the hair?
    The sebaceous glands secrete sebum
  4. What are the glands that secrete perspiration;
    sudoriferous glands secrete sweat
  5. Hair growth starts with a bulb in the hair follicule (sic) on the papilla
  6. What muscle is attached to each little hair strain
    Erector pili             

Page 29 (not marked)

½ lb (pound) White Wax   .40

5 lb _____ Petrolatum     1.00 (yellow)

1 oz (ounce) bitter almond oil  (40)

1 qt (quart) Olive Oil       1.10

3 lb White Petrolatum


Fine Hair Grower

_____ Recepi (sic)

8 drops Castor Oil   For Hair Grease

4 oz Olive Oil         (White)


2 lbs Cocoanut Oil ——50

By (sic) at National Drug and Chemical Co,

Sackville St———

Ointment tins (2 oz and 4 oz) at 43¢

and 55 per doz respectively

National Drug + C.

Page 30 (marked 26)

Pressing Oil

½ oz white wax

2lbs (15 tablespoons) Petrolatum, yellow

8oz (________) Olive Oil

3 drops Bitter Almond Oil

Oil of lemon (2 drops) in each curl


1lb white petroleum   

1oz white Beeswax (use ¼oz to 1lb petroleum)           

1 pint of Mineral Oil (use 1oz to 1lb petroleum)

4 ounces oil of lavender (imitation) use a few drops to ¼oz to cooling grease as heat uses up the scent

Buy yellow Beeswax (Cost less than white)

Use no Mineral Oil or very little in cold weather none in hot weather

4 ounces Rose Geranium (imitation) use as above

(Pressing oil)

Buy yellow beeswax (cost less than white)

Use no mineral oil or very little in cold weather none in hot weather

4 oz rose geranium (imitation) use as above


Gloss Wax (Very Stiff)

Make it stiffer than pressing oil using no mineral oil but adding oil soluble red (carmine color) a mere speck will make the product too red if care is not taken, try to purchase another cheap scent and stick to the same scent for each

Page 31 (marked 26B)

product everytime,


The true scent cost me $16 a lb (16 oz) while the imitation costs only $3 or so,

materials are bought at

National Drug Co.,

Sackville St. Halifax, N. S.

Page 32 (marked 27)

Hair straightener

1 lb beef suet

2 oz yellow wax

2 ounces castor Oil

12 grains Benzoic Acid

30 drops Oil of Lemon

5 drops Oil of Cinnamon

——— Melt wax and suet together

Add Castor Oil and Acid.  Allow to cool then stir in oils.  Use twice a day.  Rub a small quantity through hair.  Massage well in with finger tips.

Page 33 (marked 28)

Dimensions in Wig

Scalp piece  6 in width

                        4 in length

Hair 7 in ______ ____ ________

Hair 7 in used in front piece

Hair 5 in for 2nd piece

Make pomp wigs with double weave

Page 34 (not marked)

Double Page Boy--------------5.50

Single Page Boy---------------4.50

With double ____ in back

Single Page Boy -11in -3.00 -3.50 -4.00

thin 3.00  Medium 3.50  -thick 4.00

Halo Rolls 22 inch  *5.50 up.

Combs – electric ———Ordinary

Curlers -      ″    ″    ″

Page 35 (marked 29)


Page 36 (not marked)


  1. Begin by parting off the hair in sections after a thorough shampoo
  2. Divide sections in small amounts placing a rubber pad and each, together the clamp



  1. Good shampoo
  2. Get hair parted off in sections and have waxing solution ready in [aisle]
  3. Wet each strand of hair thoroughly with solution
  4. Have all equipment on hand ready for use
  5. After thoroughly dampening put hair through rubber pads, then curlers, then clamps

Page 37 (marked 30)


Page 39 (marked 31)


Page 40 (marked 32)

Price List

Combs (straightening) ———     3,50

Curlers —————————— 3,25

Electric curlers—————— 3,25

Page 41 (marked 34)

Price List

Shampoo                             25

Press                                     50

Curls                                      25

Wave                                    50

Any hair staple  25

Scalp treatment 25

Finger wave                       35

Manicure                             25

Polish                                    10


With scalp treatment use _____ ointment

(Page 70 in Lech Book, on Dandruff salve

(Formula) 2 ozs yellow vasalene (sic)

2 ozs dry sulpher

½ tsp glycerine

15 drop carbolic acid

Mix well

Page 42 (inside back cover)

R. E. Goslett

Granville [Dh]

Beauty supply

_____, _____

Humania Co

New York in pressing


30 Bank Street
Ottawa, ON